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Berry, Daina Ramey. The Price for Their Pound of Flesh: The Value of the Enslaved, from Womb to Grave, in the Building of a Nation. Boston, Massachusetts: Beacon

Press, 2017.

Countryman, Matthew J. Up South: Civil Rights and Black Power in Philadelphia. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006.

Dew, Charles B. Apostles of Disunion. Charlottesville, Virginia: University of Virginia Press, 2002.

Du Bois, W.E.B., and Elijah Anderson. The Philadelphia Negro: A Social Study. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995. 

Faust, Drew Gilpin. This Republic of Suffering: Death and the American Civil War. New York, New York: Vintage Books, 2008.

Foner, Eric. Who Owns History? Rethinking the Past in a Changing World. New York, New York: Hill and Wang, 2002.

Hahn, Steven. A Nation Under Our Feet: Black Political Struggles in the Rural South from Slavery to the Great Migration. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Presidents and

Fellows of Harvard College, 2003.

Kantrowitz, Stephen. More Than Freedom: Fighting for Black Citizenship in a White Republic. New York, New York: Penguin Books, 2012.

Keels, Thomas H. Philadelphia Graveyards and Cemeteries. Mt. Pleasant, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing, 2003. 

McPherson, James M. What They Fought For: 1861-1865. New York, New York: Anchor Books, 1995.

Nash, Gary B. First City: Philadelphia and the Forging of Historical Memory. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002.

Nelson, Megan Kate. Ruin Nation: Destruction and the American Civil War. Athens, Georgia: The University of Georgia Press, 2012.

Perman, Michael and Amy Murrell Taylor. edit., Major Problems in the Civil War and Reconstruction: Third Edition. Boston, Massachusetts: Wadsworth, Cengage

Learning, 2011.

Rosen, Hannah. Terror in the Heart of Freedom: Citizenship, Sexual Violence, and the Meaning of Race in the Postemancipation South. Durham, North Carolina:

University of North Carolina Press, 2009.

Stout, Harry S. Upon the Altar of the Nation. New York, New York: Penguin Books, 2006.

Wilkereson, Isabel. The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America's Great Migration. New York, New York: Vintage Books, 2010.


Alexandria Gazette. Alexandria, D.C. 1834-1974. 

Evening Public Ledger. Philadelphia, PA.1914-1942. 

Frederick Douglass’ Paper. Rochester, NY. 1851-1858. 

Pittsburg Dispatch. Pittsburg, PA. 1880-1923. 

The Centre Reporter. Centre Hall, PA. 1871-1940. 

The Christian Recorder. Philadelphia, PA. 1854-present. 

The Daily Gazette. Wilmington, DE. 1874-1883. 

The Evening Telegraph. Philadelphia, PA. 1864-1918. 

The Forest Republican. Tionesta, PA. 1869-1952. 

The New York Herald. New York, NY. 1840-1920. 

The New York Times. New York, NY. 1851-present. 

The Philadelphia Inquirer. Philadelphia, PA. 1829-present. 

The Philadelphia Press. Philadelphia, PA. 1857-1920. 

The Star. Reynoldsville, PA. 1892-1946. 

The Stark County Democrat. Canton, OH. 1833-1912. 

Legal Cases

Mount Moriah Cemetery Association v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ex. rel. W. H. Boileau and Margaret Jones, 81 Pa. 235,  Supreme Court of Pennsylvania


Lewis's Estate. Union Trust Company's Appeal (No. 129), 152 Pa. 477, 25 A. 878, Supreme Court of Pennsylvania (1893).


Adkins, LaTrese Evette. “‘And Who Has the Body?’: The Historical Significance of African American Funerary Display.” Ph.D., Michigan State University, 2003.

Cass, Kelsey R. “None Else of Name:  The Origin and Early Development of the United States National Cemetery System.” Ph.D., The Claremont Graduate University,


DiAgostino, Grace. “The Cemetery Project: A Model for Teaching Historical Understanding and Public History in an Age of Teaching to the Test.” M.A., Temple

          University, 2016.

Farrell, James Joseph. “The Dying of Death: The Meaning and Management of Death in America, 1830-1920.” Ph.D., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1980. 

Hanson, Robin A. “The National Cemetery: Race and Sectional Reconciliation in a Contested Landscape.” Ph.D., Saint Louis University, 2008.

Hunter, Marcus Anthony. “In Search of The Philadelphia Negro: Black Philadelphia and Urban Change (1900–2000).” Ph.D., Northwestern University, 2011.

Morse, Susan Irene. “The Pennsylvania Horticultural Society and the Urban Landscape, 1827–1927.” Ph.D., Temple University, 2000.

Rankin-Hill, Lesley Marguerite. “Afro-American Biohistory: Theoretical and Methodological Considerations.” Ph.D., University of Massachusetts Amherst, 1990.

Roberts, Nancy A. “The Afterlife of Civil War Prisons and Their Dead.” Ph.D., University of Oregon, 1996.

Schuyler, David Paul. “Public Landscapes and American Urban Culture 1800-1870: Rural Cemeteries, City Parks, and Suburbs.” Ph.D., Columbia University, 1979.

Titus, Christine Ann. “Preserving Our Past for the Future:  Designing a Geographic Information System for Archiving Historical Cemetery Information.” M.A., West

           Virginia University, 2008.

Torres, René L. C. “Cemetery Landscapes of Philadelphia.” Theses (Historic Preservation), January 1, 1997

Towle, Ashley N. “Dying Free: African Americans, Death, and the New Birth of Freedom, 1863-1877.” Ph.D., University of Maryland, College Park, 2017.

White, Tara Y. “‘A Shrine of Liberty for the Unborn Generations’: African American Clubwomen and the Preservation of African American Historic Sites.” Ph.D., Middle

           Tennessee State University, 2010.

Wunsch, Aaron Vickers. “Parceling the Picturesque: ‘Rural’ Cemeteries and Urban Context in Nineteenth-Century Philadelphia.” Ph.D., University of California,

           Berkeley, 2009.

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